Political system in Spain



On a form of government Spain is the constitutional parliamentary monarchy. A political mode - democratic.

 

The head of the state - the King (the representative of a dynasty of Bourbons Juan Carlos 1 - with 20.XI 1975). According to the Constitution, it is, a symbol of the state unity and a constancy, «the guarantor of correct functioning of the state institutes». Powers of the King can be carried out it only with countersign the Chairman of the Government or the corresponding minister. Their number concern: authorisation and promulgation of laws, convocation and dissolution General Cortes, the announcement of general election, appointment and dismissal of members of the Government.

 

The king is a supreme commander in chief, represents the country in the international relations, carries out the pardon right. As to its relations with parliament the king does not possess even such right traditional for the head of the state, as the veto. Constitution article 91 fixes that
«within 15 days after approval General Cortes bills affirm the King». The king can appoint a referendum, but only under the offer of the Chairman of the Government, approved by the Congress of deputies. After preliminary meeting with representatives of political parties in parliament the King offers the Congress of deputies a nominee of the head of the government. This nominee should be approved the chairman of the Congress. Members of the Government are appointed and leave the King under the offer of the head of the government.

 

The constitution allocates with legislature a parliament of two houses, General
Cortes. The Most part of powers belongs to the lower chamber, the Congress of deputies (350 members). The bills approved by it should be submitted to upper chamber consideration - the Senate (256 members), but the Congress by a majority of votes can overcome the Senate veto. Deputies of parliament and senators are selected for a period of 4 years - on majority system, and the Congress - on proportional system. The suffrage all citizens of the country who has reached of 18 years possess.

 

Parliament sessions are convoked 2 times a year and last for 4-5 months. On request of the Government, the constant commission of parliament or overwhelming majority of members of chambers emergency sessions which are convoked under the certain agenda can be spent. Deputies work at plenary sessions and in the commissions. Plenary sessions of chambers are opened. Decisions are accepted by the majority of present deputies of both chambers. Development of laws, budget acceptance, the control over Government activity, an establishment concerns the competence of parliament of Spain regency, guardianship. The right of the legislative initiative belongs to the Government, the Congress, the Senate. The chairman of the senate - Ф X. Roho Garsija, the chairman of the congress of deputies - M.Marin Goaeades.

 

The government - Ministerial council carries out executive power. It consists of the chairman, its assistants, ministers and other members. The nominee of the chairman is offered by the King and Cortess approve. The chairman of the government - Jos
é Luis Rodrnges Zapatero, is sworn in 17.IV 2004

 

Other members of the Government are appointed and leave the King under the offer of the Chairman of the Government. The chairman supervises over activity of the Government and bears for it responsibility. According to the constitution the Government presides «internal and foreign policy, civil both military authorities and country defence». The government is responsible before Cortess for the activity.

 

The Prime minister is put forward by the head of the state - the king and affirms the majority of deputies of parliament. Usually the prime minister is the party leader, having the majority of places in the Congress of deputies. To generate the government, this party can enter a coalition with other parties.

 

The congress of deputies can fail to trust the government and force it to retire, however deputies should plan a nominee of the following prime minister in advance. Such procedure excludes frequent change of the government.

 

The higher advisory body of the Government, according to Constitution item 107, the State council which status is regulated by the Organic law on the State council of 1980.

Independent communities have the parliaments and the governments, formations, economy use large powers in the field of culture, public health services. Each independent community has the charter (statute) accepted as the organic law of the state (Constitution item 81). Activity of bodies of autonomous regions is supervised by the Government, the Constitutional court, Schetnym court.

 

Long before a mode establishment Ex Spain already had experience of local and regional self-management. At Ex these rights have been liquidated, and the central government carried out the power at all levels. After restoration of democracy on places considerable powers have been conferred to authorities.

 

The executive power at the local level is carried out municipal by councils (more than 8,5 thousand) Members of municipalities of provinces are selected communities and together with regional parliaments send the representatives to the senate of National Legislative Assembly in Madrid.